トマス・ジェファソンは尚書を読んだのか

2012年1月に本ブログを開設して以来、初の日本語記事になります。自己紹介ページでは、英語の研究書を日本語で紹介するというような無謀な事を宣言してきましたが、グズグズしているうちに二年半も経過してしまいました。きちんと研究書を読む時間がなかなか取れないばかりか、2013~14年のあいだは日本に住むようになり、そもそも新刊の英語書が手に入らない状況になったため、まずは少々ハードルを下げ、面白かった論文の紹介などを行っていきたいと思います。気が向いた時にしか更新しませんが、迷いこんで来られた方々、どうぞよろしくお願いいたいします。

さて、今回はカリフォルニア大学サンディエゴ校のSarah Schneewind先生による、少し変わった(?)論文を紹介します。

  • Sarah Schneewind, “Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and King Wu’s First Great Pronouncement,” Journal of American-East Asian Relations 19 (2012): 1-17.(著者のプロフィールページよりPDFダウンロード可。)

Schneewind先生はもともと中国明代の社会・文化史を専門とされていますが、本論文の内容は時空ともにスケールが大きく、周武王の商朝討伐時の言葉を記録した(とされている)尚書・泰誓(上)のテキストが、トマス・ジェファソンの執筆したアメリカ独立宣言の草稿(1776年)に影響を与えたのではないか、という問題を扱っています。

一見、冗談ではないかと思われる主張ですが、論文ではこの仮説を真剣に検討し、その可能性を示す事実として、主に以下の三点を挙げています。

  • 1770年に尚書のフランス語全訳本が出版されていた。
  • ジェファソンは、後に詩経の一篇をノートに写していたことなどからも分かるように、中国関係の本を多く読んでいた。また独立宣言が、当時流通していた他の著作から、発想や言葉を大量に取り入れたことは、よく知られている。
  • 独立宣言と泰誓は、文章の構造や、既存権力への反抗を正当化するレトリックなどにおいて、類似点が多い。(なお、論文で引かれている尚書のテキストは、当時ジェファソンが読んだかもしれない文章に近づけるため、1770年出版のフランス語訳に基づき、著者が英訳したものです。)

以上、とても大雑把にまとめているため、実際の論考に興味をお持ちの方は、ぜひ論文を直接ご覧になってください。この三点を踏まえた上でSchneewind先生は、ジェファソンが尚書を読んだかどうか、直接的に証明できる史料はないものの、彼がそこに記録された武王の言葉を読み、それが独立宣言の構造・レトリックに影響を与えた可能性は十分有り得るとし、その可能性の有無に関する最終的な判断は個々の読者に委ねる、という結論に至ります。

アメリカ建国の重要な文書が、実は中国の古典に影響されていたかも知れないという、とても大胆な主張ですが、個人的な読後感としては、ジェファソンが1776年の時点で尚書を読んだか読まなかったかと言えば、やはり、読まなかった可能性の方が高いのではないかと思います。しかし一方で、特定の時代・地域において、何があり得たことで、何があり得なかったかを丁寧に考証した上で、もしかするとあったかも知れない可能性を提示する手法は、大変魅力的だと私は感じます。歴史学というものは、史料に忠実であろうとするほど、史料の残っていない事柄については何も語れなくなるという、残念な側面があるように思います。その中で、現存の史料と矛盾しない範囲内で想像力を働かせ、一つの可能性の世界を造り上げるという方法は、私自身実践してみたいところがあります。

趣文共賞 Songs in Praise of an Upright Magistrate

Note: This post is part of a series where I reproduce random sources that I find interesting, with minimal annotation and commentary. Punctuation and translation (if given) are done by me unless otherwise stated. Corrections and comments are greatly appreciated.


I recently came across the collected writings of Zhang Xuan 張選 (1494-1568; jinshi 1529), native of Wuxi, who served as magistrate of Xiaoshan County 蕭山縣 (Shaoxing Prefecture, Zhejiang) during 1529-31. He is said to have been extremely able and upright, to the extent that a crowd of several tens of thousands gathered to send him off upon the conclusion of his three-year term. In addition to the usual collection of official documents, letters, and poems, Zhang’s collected writings contain an intriguing set of poems that were supposedly sung by people of Xiaoshan in praise of Zhang’s extraordinary governance. Among other accomplishments, Zhang is said to have equalized tax assessments, buried abandoned bodies, made locusts disappear, and turned tigers away.

Transcribed below are four out of the fourteen songs that appear in the appendix of Zhang’s collected writings. I do not assume that they reflect the voices of the ordinary people as claimed by preface writers, but the first poem does contain complaints that are quite specific to the Ming tax situation. Also interesting are some plain expressions that are likely not to be found in poems of more literary types (eg. 子孫了公事 睡到日頭升).

Source: Zhang Xuan 張選, Zhongjian Jingsi Zhang gong yiji 忠諫靜思張公遺集. Printed edition prefaced Kangxi 33 (1694), reproduced in Siku quanshu cunmu congshu. 9.13a-20b.


徭役均

出門見父老 滿道歡呼聲
問之何為者 父老陳其情
昔年縣官私 徭役失均平
一以阿權貴 一以私己營
說事過賄賂 馬下任公行
富者存作絕 貧者刻骨徵
邑有大鄉宦 免至二千丁
亦有小鄉官 兩丁羌弓兵
設或與辦觸 忿暴加酷刑
饑者不獲食 勞者弗獲寧
自從張侯來 立法公且平
視產計多寡 驗丁分重輕
豪富不苟免 貧乏得安生
且如權要家 舊日恣橫行
田糧動千百 戶大不分撑
輪到編役際 攀例免科徵
丁役盡蠲除 [缺一句?]
如今官執法 差撥無遺零
糧長每年定 里長十數名
銀差與力差 周遍不漏星
我等老年紀 遇此官長清
家破復可理 田荒復可耕
子孫了公事 睡到日頭升
予聞父老言 歡喜不自勝
誰能傳此語 上達天子聽
遍令九州內 法侯治蕭城

猛虎去

投牒移神驅猛獸 我侯德政感山神
南山白額一時去 共說張侯是宋均

虫蝗除

十異相傳說我侯 蕭山今日勝中牟
蝗飛出境無踪跡 百姓重歌歲有秋

瘞遺屍

先王掩骼順天時 今見張侯瘞路屍
仁澤尚能施死者 生民奚有不覃施

Inconsistent Dates in the Ming Veritable Records

I have long wondered about a question concerning the Ming Veritable Records (Ming shilu 明實錄), state-compiled works of history that recorded major political affairs in chronological order. The question is: do events recorded in the Veritable Records appear under the dates when they took place, or under the dates when they were discussed at court? For example, if an earthquake happened in Sichuan on the first day of the fifth month, was it recorded under this date, or did it appear, say, one month later, when the news reached the central court? I had always believed that the latter was the case, but never bothered to confirm this belief with concrete examples.

So I decided to investigate it further by comparing the Veritable Records against corresponding memorials of Zhu Xieyuan 朱燮元 (1566-1638), who served as grand coordinator of Sichuan (四川巡撫) during Tianqi 2-5 (1622-25). Zhu’s Sichuan memorials were later collected and published, making it possible to compare their dates of composition with the dates of Veritable Records entries that were based on Zhu’s reports. (These entries usually contain near-verbatim excerpts from Zhu’s memorials, so the process of tracking was not so difficult.)

As it turns out, the answer is not so clear-cut. The table below shows some of the memorials for which I was able to trace the corresponding references in the Veritable Records:

Memorial Title Date of
Composition
Appearance in
Veritable Records
Time
Elapsed
一次請告疏 Tianqi 2/3/16 Tianqi 2/5/20 63 days
報擒獲巨惡疏 Tianqi 2/7/4 Tianqi 2/8/22 47 days
優卹江門失陣文武疏 Tianqi 2/7/18 Tianqi 2/7/10 -8 days
京察自陳疏 Tianqi 2/11/24 Tianqi 3/1/20 55 days
克囤擒撫功次疏 Tianqi 3/5/2 Tianqi 3/6/28 56 days
塘報擒斬招降功次疏 Tianqi 3/7/8 Tianqi 3/7/4 -4 days
地震疏 Tianqi 3/7/8 Tianqi 3/8/19 41 days
塘報各路功次疏 Tianqi 3/9/2 Tianqi 3/run10/9 66 days
飛報擒獲首兇疏 Tianqi 3/12/1 Tianqi 3/12/24 23 days

As can be seen, most memorials made their ways into the Veritable Records in about 2 months, with the exception of one memorial, which seems to have reached Beijing in an astonishingly short span of 23 days. But the most intriguing are the two memorials whose appearances in the Veritable Records date back to before their dates of composition, presumably reflecting the dates of events that were reported in them.

At this point, it is not clear to me why the events reported in these two memorials were treated differently in the Veritable Records. At first sight, they do not seem to be particularly different in nature from matters reported in Zhu’s other memorials. My tentative hypothesis is that this inconsistency of dates might reflect a more fundamental inconsistency in the archiving system of the Ming government. Maybe the persons responsible for archiving incoming provincial memorials were not always consistent with their system of chronological filing (ie. whether to file them by the date of occurrence or date of receipt). Or perhaps, the Veritable Records were drawn from archives of several different government offices, each of which had different principles of chronological filing. Until further research is done (hopefully soon!), it is hard to draw any conclusions.

In any case, if Zhu Xieyuan’s case can be generalized, the answers to my initial question are as follows:

  1. In most cases, events in the Ming Veritable Records appear under the dates when they were processed at the court.
  2. However, there are some exceptions where the events appear under the dates when they took place.

The tricky thing is that just from reading the Veritable Records entries themselves, it is usually not possible to tell which is the case. So next time you see a local event reported in the Veritable Records, stop and think twice about what its date might actually mean.


Sources Used:

  • Zhu Xieyuan 朱燮元. Shaoshuai Zhu Xiangyi gong du Shu shucao 少師朱襄毅公督蜀疏草. 12 juan. Qing printed edition. Reprint, Siku quanshu cunmu congshu.
  • Ming shilu 明實錄. Collated by Academia Sinica Institute of History and Philology 中央研究院歴史語言研究所. Taipei: Zhongyang yanjiuyuan lishi yuyan yanjiusuo, 1966. (Accessed text version through Scripta Sinica online database.)

A Guide to Searching Japanese Scholarship

This guide introduces some of the resources that I use most frequently when looking for Japanese language scholarship. The assumed reader is a Sinologist working at a North American university, but the post might also be useful for others with a similar background. The first part describes how to find works on a particular topic; the second part provides tips on locating a particular work after having found the relevant bibliographic information.

Finding Japanese Language Works

1. 東洋学文献類目検索 ( Ver. 7 | Ver. 6 )

A Digitalized version of the Annual Bibliography of Oriental Studies 東洋学文献類目, published by Kyoto University’s Institute for Research in Humanities (人文科学研究所). Also includes non-Japanese language works. There are two “versions” of the database, with slightly different periods of coverage:

Version 7: Contains items covering 1934-1980; 2001 and later. As of the date of this post, I have confirmed the inclusion of items from the year 2012.
Version 6: Contains items covering 1981-2010?

2. 国立国会図書館サーチ

Searches the holdings of the National Diet Library (NDL) as well as several outside databases. The database includes not only books, but also titles of individual journal articles. (I mainly use it for searching the latter.)

Note: Holdings of the NDL include a significant body of PhD dissertations, but they rely on donations from individual universities and are not comprehensive. For more on searching for dissertations, see this page: 国会図書館調べ方案内: 国内博士論文. My understanding is that there is no single database that provides comprehensive coverage of all universities, and it is necessary to check the catalogue of each degree awarding institution. (On the other hand, many dissertations consist of already-published articles, which will show up when searching NDL’s holdings.)

3. CiNii Articles

Searches NDL’s index of journal articles as well as indices of various journals and university repositories. My impression is that most items found on CiNii will also be available on NDL’s database, but it is a good idea to double check on this database because it will occasionally have links to university repositories where you can download free PDF copies of the articles. (There are also articles that are only available by subscription.)

4. 科学研究費助成事業データベース

Provides access to proposals and reports of research projects that have been awarded funding by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (日本学術振興会). Useful for learning about ongoing research projects that may not have been published.

5. Published Books (Important!)

Most books by Japanese scholars consist of revised versions the author’s already-published articles, so if you know the name of the relevant author, it might be best to first check his/her book publications. Not only will you be able to read more updated versions of the original articles, it will also save you a lot of time compared to tracking down the many individual articles that might have been published on minor journals that are hard to locate.

6. 史学雑誌

Every year, the May issue of the journal Shigaku zasshi 史学雑誌 is devoted to reviewing scholarly publications of the previous year. One scholar will be responsible for a chapter covering a particular geographic area and time period (Ming-Qing China, for example). Useful for historians who need to catch up on recent scholarship.

Locating Japanese Language Works

Some articles are available in PDF copies through CiNii, but the great majority are only available through paper copies. The major journals are available in many university libraries, but you might need to make interlibrary requests for the minor journals. Again, if an article is hard to access, check if it has been incorporated into the author’s book publications (refer to #5 above).

If a book is not immediately available at your library and you want to take a quick look at its table of contents, try searching it on Webcat Plus. This database provides the table of contents for some (but not all) books. Sometimes the information is abridged, so the safest way is still to check the physical book itself.

Many online library catalogues do not handle searches in East Asian languages well, so it might be best to search using the Romanized title. Worldcat (as well as Harvard’s Hollis catalogue) is very good with searches in East Asian languages, so if you do not know the correct Romanization of a book title, search it on Worldcat first to find out the Romanization.

How Much Were People’s Lives Worth in the Ming Dynasty?

How much was a human life worth in the Ming dynasty? I mean literally, how much money did a life cost? Although one might wonder whether such a question is even a valid one (how can we quantify the value of a human life?), my recent reading of some official correspondence has led me to believe that part of this question can be answered.

The Ming state regularly paid money to reward soldiers who killed or captured rebels in battles, encourage former rebels to surrender, and (less frequently, it seems) redeem captured Ming subjects whose lives were in danger. As it turns out, some extant sources record not only the amount of silver paid for such endeavors, but also the differing prices assigned to people of different gender and age. They do not reflect the economic value of an individual on the labor market, but they do, in a way, show how much the state was willing to pay for the lives (or deaths) of law-abiding subjects and/or dangerous rebels.

Below is a list of numbers that I have found through a very random reading (skimming) of the writings of Ming officials. Some of my following descriptions might turn out to be wrong after more thorough reading and further research, but I thought I would share my notes here, as I’d be interested to hear what others think. Obviously there will be regional and chronological variations, but so far I find the numbers to be surprisingly consistent. Some speculative and bold conclusions based on the sources that I have seen so far:

  • An adult male was worth about 1-5 taels?
  • Women were worth about half of men, and children were worth even less?
  • A horse might have been worth more than a man?

… Or am I getting something wrong? We’ll see when I find more materials in the future…


The Numbers

The head of a bandit/rebel: 1 tael, 1 3 taels, 2 5 taels 3

A bandit/rebel captured alive: 0.2-2 taels 4

  • Main bandit: 2 taels
  • Minor bandit: 1 tael
  • Woman: 0.5 tael
  • Male or female child: 0.2 tael

Money given to bandits/rebels who surrendered: 1-3 taels 5

  • Strong person (man?): 3 taels
  • Old or young person: 1 tael
  • Person who came with a strong horse: 10 taels
  • Person who came with a weak horse: 5 taels

Ransom for buying back captured Ming subjects: about 3 taels per person 6

  • The exact amount was to be determined after further discussion, but the memorializer suggested that men of ages 16-60 were to be worth twice as much as women, the old, and the weak.

The Sources

  1. 李化龍 (1554-1611) 平播全書 堵截事 (四庫存目叢書 15.2a): “我兵微有斬獲威勢。亦振全賞半賞。如議支給。一級賞銀一兩。”

  2. 盧象昇 (1600-1638) 盧象昇疏牘 鼓練鄉勇 (明末清初史料選刊 p. 64): “鄉兵殺賊。與官兵一體給賞。殺真賊首級一顆。賞銀三兩。斬獲小頭目一名。賞銀十五兩。斬獲大頭目一名。賞銀三十兩。”

  3. 李化龍 平播全書 縣購規則疏 (四庫存目叢書 2.10a-15b): “查例苗級一顆。賞銀五兩。今加倍。應賞銀十兩。”

  4. 李化龍 平播全書 俘獲賞格 (四庫存目叢書 10.21a-22b): “但生擒一名。解驗的實。首賊賞銀二兩。從賊一兩。婦女每口五錢。幼男女每口二錢。”

  5. 楊嗣昌 (1588-1641) 楊文弱先生集 上宰相書 (續修四庫全書 45.13a-16a): “收降亦自有法。朝廷但給萬金。付遼撫鎭。聽其自來。強壯賞銀三兩。老小賞銀一兩。拐馬來者。臕壯賞銀十兩。疲弱賞銀五兩。”

  6. 張岳 (1492-1552) 小山類稿 乞立存活被虜人口賞格疏 (四庫全書 5.1a-3a): “男女長幼相折補。每口用銀。大約三兩。則銀一千兩。可活三百餘口… 能送出被虜人口數多。男子十六嵗以上至六十嵗。一口准一功。老弱婦女。二口准一功。”

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